WinAVR Windows 10 Error Compile

Copy this file:

madwizard.org/download/electronics/msys-1.0-vista64.zip

to utils\bin directory (WinAVR)

 

Sumber: http://www.avrfreaks.net/forum/windows-81-compilation-error?page=all

Keypad 3×4 ATMega Atmel Studio

file .c

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#include <util/delay.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include "keypad_lib.h"

char read_keypad()
{
	DDR_keypad = 0b00001111;
	/* 1 2 3
	   4 5 6
	   7 8 9
	   * 0 #
	*/
	
	PORT_keypad = 0b11111110;
	//scan baris 1
	if(PIN_keypad == 0b11101110)
	{
		return ('1');	
	}
	else if(PIN_keypad == 0b11011110)
	{
		return ('2');
	}
	else if(PIN_keypad == 0b10111110)
	{
		return ('3');
	}
	
	//scan baris 2	
	PORT_keypad = 0b11111101;
	if(PIN_keypad == 0b11101101)
	{
		return ('4');
	}
	else if(PIN_keypad == 0b11011101)
	{
		return ('5');
	}
	else if(PIN_keypad == 0b10111101)
	{
		return ('6');
	}
	
	//scan baris 3
	PORT_keypad = 0b11111011;
	if(PIN_keypad == 0b11101011)
	{
		return ('7');
	}
	else if(PIN_keypad == 0b11011011)
	{
		return ('8');
	}
	else if(PIN_keypad == 0b10111011)
	{
		return ('9');
	}
	
	//scan baris 4
	PORT_keypad = 0b11110111;
	if(PIN_keypad == 0b11100111)
	{
		return ('*');
	}
	else if(PIN_keypad == 0b11010111)
	{
		return ('0');
	}
	else if(PIN_keypad == 0b10110111)
	{
		return ('#');
	}
	return ('$');
}

file .h

#ifndef KEYPAD_LIB_H_
#define KEYPAD_LIB_H_

#include <inttypes.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>

#define PORT_keypad PORTB
#define PIN_keypad PINB
#define DDR_keypad DDRB

extern char read_keypad();

#endif /* KEYPAD_LIB_H_ */

I2C ATMega Atmel Studio

file .c

#include <avr/io.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <util/delay.h>
#include <compat/twi.h>
#include "i2c_lib.h"

void I2C_Init(void)
{
	//set SCL to 400kHz
	TWSR = 0x00;
	TWBR = 0x0C;
	//enable TWI
	TWCR = (1<<TWEN);
}

void I2C_Start(void)
{
	TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTA)|(1<<TWEN);
	while ((TWCR & (1<<TWINT)) == 0);
}

//send stop signal
void I2C_Stop(void)
{
	TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWSTO)|(1<<TWEN);
}

void I2C_Write(uint8_t u8data)
{
	TWDR = u8data;
	TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN);
	while ((TWCR & (1<<TWINT)) == 0);
}

uint8_t I2C_ReadACK(void)
{
	TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN)|(1<<TWEA);
	while ((TWCR & (1<<TWINT)) == 0);
	return TWDR;
}

//read byte with NACK
uint8_t I2C_ReadNACK(void)
{
	TWCR = (1<<TWINT)|(1<<TWEN);
	while ((TWCR & (1<<TWINT)) == 0);
	return TWDR;
}

uint8_t I2C_GetStatus(void)
{
	uint8_t status;
	//mask status
	status = TWSR & 0xF8;
	return status;
}

file .h

#ifndef I2C_LIB_H_
#define I2C_LIB_H_

extern void I2C_Init(void);

extern void I2C_Start(void);

//send stop signal
extern void I2C_Stop(void);

extern void I2C_Write(uint8_t u8data);

extern uint8_t I2C_ReadACK(void);

//read byte with NACK
extern uint8_t I2C_ReadNACK(void);

extern uint8_t I2C_GetStatus(void);

#endif /* I2C_LIB_H_ */

Setting New Project Atmel Studio

Berikut setting Atmel Studio untuk xtal, float LCD,& Optimization


Tambahkan pada main program
atmel_set1
Klik kanan pada Solution Explorer Nama Project -> Properties
atmel_set2
Add symbol nilai xtal
atmel_set3
atmel_set4
Optimization Level jadi -Os
atmel_set5
Centang Use vprintf library
atmel_set6
Isi other linker flags
atmel_set7

UART Interrupt ATMega128 Atmel Studio

#ifndef F_CPU
#define F_CPU 11059200UL // or whatever may be your frequency
#endif

#include <avr/io.h>
#include <util/delay.h>
#include <avr/eeprom.h>
#include <avr/interrupt.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

#ifndef UPE
#define UPE 2
#endif

#ifndef DOR
#define DOR 3
#endif

#ifndef FE
#define FE 4
#endif

#ifndef UDRE
#define UDRE 5
#endif

#ifndef RXC
#define RXC 7
#endif

#define FRAMING_ERROR (1<<FE)
#define PARITY_ERROR (1<<UPE)
#define DATA_OVERRUN (1<<DOR)
#define DATA_REGISTER_EMPTY (1<<UDRE)
#define RX_COMPLETE (1<<RXC)

// USART0 Receiver buffer
#define RX_BUFFER_SIZE0 32
char rx_buffer0[RX_BUFFER_SIZE0];

#if RX_BUFFER_SIZE0 <= 256
unsigned char rx_wr_index0,rx_rd_index0,rx_counter0;
#else
unsigned int rx_wr_index0,rx_rd_index0,rx_counter0;
#endif

// This flag is set on USART0 Receiver buffer overflow
uint8_t rx_buffer_overflow0;

// USART0 Receiver interrupt service routine
ISR(USART0_RX_vect)
{
	char status,data;
	status=UCSR0A;
	data=UDR0;
	if ((status & (FRAMING_ERROR | PARITY_ERROR | DATA_OVERRUN))==0)
	{
		rx_buffer0[rx_wr_index0++]=data;
		#if RX_BUFFER_SIZE0 == 256
		// special case for receiver buffer size=256
		if (++rx_counter0 == 0) rx_buffer_overflow0=1;
		#else
		if (rx_wr_index0 == RX_BUFFER_SIZE0) rx_wr_index0=0;
		if (++rx_counter0 == RX_BUFFER_SIZE0)
		{
			rx_counter0=0;
			rx_buffer_overflow0=1;
		}
		#endif
	}
}

#ifndef _DEBUG_TERMINAL_IO_
// Get a character from the USART0 Receiver buffer
#define _ALTERNATE_GETCHAR_
#pragma used+
char _getchar(void)
{
	uint8_t counter1 = 0,
			counter2 = 0,
			counter3 = 0;
	char data;
	uint8_t cc;
	while(rx_counter0==0)
	{
		_delay_us(0);
	};
	data=rx_buffer0[rx_rd_index0++];
	#if RX_BUFFER_SIZE0 != 256
	if (rx_rd_index0 == RX_BUFFER_SIZE0) rx_rd_index0=0;
	#endif
	cli();
	--rx_counter0;
	sei();
	return data;
}
#pragma used-
#endif

// USART0 Transmitter buffer
#define TX_BUFFER_SIZE0 32
char tx_buffer0[TX_BUFFER_SIZE0];

#if TX_BUFFER_SIZE0 <= 256
unsigned char tx_wr_index0,tx_rd_index0,tx_counter0;
#else
unsigned int tx_wr_index0,tx_rd_index0,tx_counter0;
#endif

// USART0 Transmitter interrupt service routine
ISR(USART0_TX_vect)
{
	if (tx_counter0)
	{
		--tx_counter0;
		UDR0=tx_buffer0[tx_rd_index0++];
		#if TX_BUFFER_SIZE0 != 256
		if (tx_rd_index0 == TX_BUFFER_SIZE0) tx_rd_index0=0;
		#endif
	}
}

#ifndef _DEBUG_TERMINAL_IO_
// Write a character to the USART0 Transmitter buffer
#define _ALTERNATE_PUTCHAR_
#pragma used+
void _putchar(char c)
{
	while (tx_counter0 == TX_BUFFER_SIZE0)
	{
		_delay_us(0);
	};
	cli();
	if (tx_counter0 || ((UCSR0A & DATA_REGISTER_EMPTY)==0))
	{
		tx_buffer0[tx_wr_index0++]=c;
		#if TX_BUFFER_SIZE0 != 256
		if (tx_wr_index0 == TX_BUFFER_SIZE0) tx_wr_index0=0;
		#endif
		++tx_counter0;
	}
	else
	UDR0=c;
	sei();
}
#pragma used-
#endif

// USART1 Receiver buffer
#define RX_BUFFER_SIZE1 32
char rx_buffer1[RX_BUFFER_SIZE1];

#if RX_BUFFER_SIZE1 <= 256
unsigned char rx_wr_index1,rx_rd_index1,rx_counter1;
#else
unsigned int rx_wr_index1,rx_rd_index1,rx_counter1;
#endif

// This flag is set on USART1 Receiver buffer overflow
uint8_t rx_buffer_overflow1;

// USART1 Receiver interrupt service routine
ISR(USART1_RX_vect)
{
	char status,data;
	status=UCSR1A;
	data=UDR1;
	if ((status & (FRAMING_ERROR | PARITY_ERROR | DATA_OVERRUN))==0)
	{
		rx_buffer1[rx_wr_index1++]=data;
		#if RX_BUFFER_SIZE1 == 256
		// special case for receiver buffer size=256
		if (++rx_counter1 == 0) rx_buffer_overflow1=1;
		#else
		if (rx_wr_index1 == RX_BUFFER_SIZE1) rx_wr_index1=0;
		if (++rx_counter1 == RX_BUFFER_SIZE1)
		{
			rx_counter1=0;
			rx_buffer_overflow1=1;
		}
		#endif
	}
}

// Get a character from the USART1 Receiver buffer
#pragma used+
char _getchar1(void)
{
	uint8_t counter1 = 0,
			counter2 = 0,
			counter3 = 0;
	char data;
	while (rx_counter1==0)
	{
		_delay_us(0);	
	};
	data=rx_buffer1[rx_rd_index1++];
	#if RX_BUFFER_SIZE1 != 256
	if (rx_rd_index1 == RX_BUFFER_SIZE1) rx_rd_index1=0;
	#endif
	cli();
	--rx_counter1;
	sei();
	return data;
}
#pragma used-
// USART1 Transmitter buffer
#define TX_BUFFER_SIZE1 32
char tx_buffer1[TX_BUFFER_SIZE1];

#if TX_BUFFER_SIZE1 <= 256
unsigned char tx_wr_index1,tx_rd_index1,tx_counter1;
#else
unsigned int tx_wr_index1,tx_rd_index1,tx_counter1;
#endif

// USART1 Transmitter interrupt service routine
ISR(USART1_TX_vect)
{
	if (tx_counter1)
	{
		--tx_counter1;
		UDR1=tx_buffer1[tx_rd_index1++];
		#if TX_BUFFER_SIZE1 != 256
		if (tx_rd_index1 == TX_BUFFER_SIZE1) tx_rd_index1=0;
		#endif
	}
}

// Write a character to the USART1 Transmitter buffer
#pragma used+
void _putchar1(char c)
{
	while (tx_counter1 == TX_BUFFER_SIZE1)
	{
		_delay_us(0);
	};
	cli();
	if (tx_counter1 || ((UCSR1A & DATA_REGISTER_EMPTY)==0))
	{
		tx_buffer1[tx_wr_index1++]=c;
		#if TX_BUFFER_SIZE1 != 256
		if (tx_wr_index1 == TX_BUFFER_SIZE1) tx_wr_index1=0;
		#endif
		++tx_counter1;
	}
	else
	UDR1=c;
	sei();
}
#pragma used-

main program

int main(void)
{
	char buffer = 0;
	// USART0 initialization
	// Communication Parameters: 8 Data, 1 Stop, No Parity
	// USART0 Receiver: On
	// USART0 Transmitter: On
	// USART0 Mode: Asynchronous
	// USART0 Baud Rate: 9600
	UCSR0A=0x00;
	UCSR0B=0xD8;
	UCSR0C=0x06;
	UBRR0H=0x00;
	UBRR0L=0x47;

	// USART1 initialization
	// Communication Parameters: 8 Data, 1 Stop, No Parity
	// USART1 Receiver: On
	// USART1 Transmitter: On
	// USART1 Mode: Asynchronous
	// USART1 Baud Rate: 9600
	UCSR1A=0x00;
	UCSR1B=0xD8;
	UCSR1C=0x06;
	UBRR1H=0x00;
	UBRR1L=0x47;

	// Analog Comparator initialization
	// Analog Comparator: Off
	// Analog Comparator Input Capture by Timer/Counter 1: Off
	ACSR=0x80;
	SFIOR=0x00;

	sei();
    while(1)
    {
        //TODO:: Please write your application code 
		buffer = _getchar();
		_putchar(buffer);
    }
}

Design Fuzzy Logic Dengan Bantuan Software FuzzyTech

Sebenarnya ini adalah video lama yang saya shoot ketika belajar tentang fuzzy logic. Saya belajar dari buku

Suyanto. 2007.“Artificial Intelegent; Searching, Reasoning, Planing, and Learning”. Penerbit Informatika. Bandung

Buku ini cukup nyaman untuk dibaca dan enak untuk difahami. Berikut adalah video mendesain fuzzy logic dengan software fuzzy tech untuk mensimulasikan sebuah kasus pada bab fuzzy logic pada buku yang saya sebut di atas. Dengan bantuan software Fuzzy Tech tersebut kita bisa mensimulasikannya.

Ulasan Sistem AGV

A. Contoh design AGV

agvpic1

agvpic2

agvpic3

agvpic4

agvpic5

agvpic6

agvpic7

agvpic8

agvpic9

agvpic10

B. Tipe Navigasi AGV

agvpic11

agvpic12

C. Macam-macam Navigasi AGV

agvpic13

agvpic14

agvpic15

agvpic16

agvpic17

agvpic18

agvpic19

agvpic20

D. Safety pada AGV

agvpic21

agvpic22

agvpic23

agvpic24

agvpic25

E. Parts of AGV System

agvpic26

agvpic27

agvpic28

agvpic29

F. Battery Type

agvpic30

G. AGV Berdasarkan Tipe Vahicle

agvpic31

agvpic32

agvpic33

agvpic34

agvpic35

agvpic36

agvpic37

agvpic38

H. Contoh Akuisisi Data Dari Performa AGV

agvpic39

agvpic40

I. Sensor Posisi Laser SICK NAV350

agvpic41

agvpic42

agvpic43

agvpic44

agvpic45

J. Contoh Chassis Design

agvpic46

agvpic47

K.Contoh Localization using Markers

agvpic48

agvpic49

agvpic50

____________________________________________________________________

Daftar Pustaka
-Datasheet Operating Instruction NAV Laser Positioning Sensor
-Davide Ronzoni, Roberto Olmi, Cristian Secchi and Cesare Fantuzzi.”AGV Global Localization Using Indistinguishable Artificial Landmarks”. Authors are with the Department of Sciences and Methods of Engineer-ing, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via G. Amendola 2, Morsellibuilding, Reggio Emilia I-42122 Italy
-Thanh Luan Bui, Phuc Thinh Doan, Soon Sil Park, Hak Kyeong Kim and Sang Bong Kim .2013.”AGV Trajectory Control Based on Laser Sensor Navigation”. Department of Mechanical and Automotive Eng., Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739, Korrea Ranault Samsung Motors, Busan, Korea.
-Christoph Reinke and Patric Beinschob. “Strategies for Contour-Based Self-Localization in Large-Scale Modern Warehouses”.SICK AG Merkurring 20, 22143 Hamburg, Germany
-Savant Automation, Inc.2011.”Vehicle Navigation for Automatic Guided Vehicle/Cart Systems”. http://www.agvsystems.com
-Datasheet TANK-800-D525
-“On-Line Training Program Module 4a How do the vehicles work in an AGV system?”. http://www.mhi.org/agvs
-“On-Line Training Program Module 1 What is an AGV?”. http://www.mhi.org/agvs
-“On-Line Training Program Module 3 Why would I want an AGV?”. http://www.mhi.org/agvs
-“On-Line Training Program Module 5 Will AGVs Work for Me?”. http://www.mhi.org/agvs
roboteq.com/index.php/component/easyblog/entry/building-a-magnetic-track-guided-agv

Configure Cisco Router Step By Step Guide

Sumber: computernetworkingnotes.com/ccna-study-guide/configure-cisco-router-step-by-step-guide.html

This tutorial explains how to configure Cisco router step by step. Cisco router configuration commands are explained in packet tracer.

Cisco router is a device that switches data packets between two different networks. By default two different IP network cannot communicate with each other. They need a mediator device that exchanges their packets. Routers do this job successfully by taking packet from one network and delivering it to another network. This process is called routing.

We need to perform some initial configurations on router before it can be used for routing. In this article we will explain these configurations.

We will use Packet Tracer network simulator software for demonstration. Beside Packet Tracer You can also use any other network simulator software such as Boson, GNS or even better if you can afford, use a real Cisco device. No matter what option you choose, till this uses Cisco IOS output will be same.

Create a network topology as illustrate in following figure

cisco1

We have created this topology to give you a better overview of commands. You can use single router if you are unable to replicate this topology in packet tracer. Alternatively you can download this pre-created topology.

Download practice topology

No matter what you prefer, for reset of this article I assume that you have one router available in workspace.

Access CLI prompt of router
cisco2

Cisco IOS supports various command modes, among those followings are the main command modes.

  • User EXEC Mode
  • Privileged EXEC Mode
  • Global Configuration Mode
  • Interface Configuration Mode
  • Sub Interface Configuration Mode
  • Setup Mode
  • ROM Monitor Mode

You need to execute specific commands to navigate from one mode to another.

Mode Prompt Command to enter Command to exit
User EXEC Router > Default mode after booting. Login with password, if configured. Use exit command
Privileged EXEC Router # Use enable command from user exec mode Use exit command
Global Configuration Router(config)# Use configure terminalcommand from privileged exec mode Use exit command
Interface Configuration Router(config-if)# Use interface type numbercommand from global configuration mode Use exit command to return in global configuration mode
Sub-Interface Configuration Router(config-subif) Use interface type sub interface number command from global configuration mode or interface configure mode Use exit to return previous mode. Use end command to return in privileged exec mode.
Setup Parameter[Parameter value]: Router will automatically insert in this mode if running configuration is not present Press CTRL+C to abort. Type yes to save configuration, or no to exit without saving when asked in the end of setup.
ROMMON ROMMON > Enter reload command from privileged exec mode. PressCTRL + C key combination during the first 60 seconds of booting process Use exit command.
  • IOS commands are not case sensitive; you can enter them in uppercase, lowercase, or mixed case.
  • Password is case sensitive. Make sure you type it in correct case.
  • In any mode, you can obtain a list of commands available on that mode by entering a question mark (?).
  • Standard order of accessing mode is
    User Exec mode => Privileged Exec mode => Global Configuration mode => Interface Configuration mode => Sub Interface Configuration mode
  • Router will enter in setup mode only if it fails to load a valid running configuration.
  • Router will enter in ROMMON mode only if it fails to load a valid IOS image file.
  • You can manually enter in ROMMON mode for diagnostics purpose.

Enter in global configuration mode to execute following commands.
cisco3

Change default router name

By default Router name is configured on routers. We can configure any desired name on router.hostname command will change the name of router. For example following command will assignLAB1 name to the router.
cisco4

Configure password on cisco router

Router is a critical device of network. It supports multiple lines for connection. We need to secure each line [port].

Secure console port

cisco5

Command Description
Router(config)#line console 0 Move in console line mode
Router(config-line)#password console Set console line password to CNN
Router(config-line)#login Enable password authentication for console line

Secure auxiliary port

Auxiliary port provides remote access to router. You can attach modem in this port. Not all devices support this port. If your router supports this port use following commands to secure it.
cisco6

Command Description
Router(config)#line aux 0 Move into auxiliary line mode
Router(config-line)#password AUXCNN Set auxiliary line mode password to AUXCNN
Router(config-line)#login Enable auxiliary line mode password

Enable telnet access on cisco router

Depending on the model number and IOS software version router may supports various number of VTY connections range from 5 to 1000. VTY is the standard name for telnet and SSH connection. By default only first five VTYs connections are enabled. But you cannot connect them. When you try to connect them remotely you will get following message

Password required but none set

This message indicates that password is not set on VTY lines. Password is required to connect VTYs. Following commands set password to TELCNN on VTYs line.
cisco7

Command Description
Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Move into all five VTYs line
Router(config-line)#password TELCNN Set password to TELCNN on all five lines
Router(config-line)#login Configure VTYs to accept telnet connection

In above example we set password on all five lines collectively but you can do this separately if you need different passwords for different lines. Steps will be same.

  1. line vty [line number] command will move into that specific line.
  2. password [password] command will assign the desired password.
  3. login command will enable that line to accept the connection.

Secure privilege exec mode with password

Along with access lines we can also secure privilege exec mode with password. We have two commands to configure the password.

  1. Switch(config)# enable password Privilege_EXEC_password
  2. Switch(config)# enable secret Privilege_EXEC_password

Both commands will set the password on privilege exec mode. Difference between these commands is the method of password storage. enable password command will store password in plain text whileenable secret command will store password in encryption format.

Login banner

We can configure two types of banner on routers; MOTD banner and Exec banner.

banner exec command is not available in packet tracer. You can practice with banner motdcommand. Both commands work in same manner. Only the difference between these commands is the place of display. MOTD banner will display before the login. An EXEC banner will display after the authentication process and before the exec mode.
cisco8

Both commands use delimiting character to specify the starting and ending of message. It means command parser will terminate the message on delimiting character instead of the Enter key. This feature allows us to span the message in multiple lines.

Configure clock time zone

Router allows us to localize the time zone. Following command will set time zone to +5 hour of EST [Eastern Standard Time].

Router(config)#clock timezone EST 05

Assign hostname to IP Address

Hostname are easy to remember. We can use host name instead of their IP address while connecting with remote address. Router resolves IP address to hostname in two ways: static and dynamic.

In static method we have to assign hostname to IP address.

In dynamic method we have to configure an external DNS server and need to configure its IP address on router.

show hosts command will display the currently configured hosts with their IP addresses. Following figure illustrate an example of static entry for hostname.
cisco9

Disable automatic domain lookup

By default routers are configured to resolve every word that is not a command. It will first look in static DNS table for an entry. If it fails to find an entry in static DNS table, it will try with DNS server at address 255.255.255.255. If you are not going to use DNS server or hostname facility, it is better to turn this off. It will save your time because every incorrectly typed command will cost you a wait of minute or two.

no ip domain-lookup command is used to disable this feature.
cisco10

Enable logging synchronous

Whenever IOS has any kind of notification, it will display that on command prompt. It fines until prompt is free. What if you are typing a command and notification line appears in the middle of the command? This is really annoying. Luckily we can stop this behavior. logging synchronous command will enable synchronization at command prompt.
cisco11

After this if IOS has anything to display it will move prompt and your typed command in next line. Notification will not insert in the middle of command. If you continue typing, the command will execute properly, even though it looks wrong at prompt.

Disable auto logout from console line

Cisco IOS has a great security feature to secure the console line. It automatically logs out ideal connection in 10 minutes. You can disable this feature in lab environment. exec-timeout 0 0command will disable this.
cisco12

Never use this command in real world. It could create security risk to your network.

Configure serial interface in router

Serial interface is used to connect wan network. Following command will configure serial 0/0/0 interface.
cisco13

Command Description
Router(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 Enter into serial interface 0/0/0 configuration mode
Router(config-if)#description Connected to bhilwara Optional command. It set description on interface that is locally significant
Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 Assigns address and subnet mask to interface
Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 DCE side only command. Assigns a clock rate for the interface
Router(config-if)#bandwidth 64 DCE side only command. Set bandwidth for the interface.
Router(config-if)#no shutdown Turns interface on

Serial cable is used to connect serial interfaces. One end of serial cable is DCE while other end is DTE. You only need to provide clock rate and bandwidth in DCE side.

Configure FastEthernet Interface in router

Usually FastEthernet connects local network with router. Following commands will configure FastEhternet 0/0 interface.
cisco14

Command Description
Router(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 Enter into the FastEthernet 0/0 interface.
Router(config-if)#description Development department This command is optional. It will set description on interface.
Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0 Assigns address and subnet mask to interface
Router(config-if)#no shutdown Turns interface on. All interfaces are set to off on startup.

Disable router interface

By default all interface are administratively down on startup. We should also follow this rule.

For security reason, we should always disable unused interface on router. shutdown command is used to disable the interface.
cisco15

Saving running configuration in cisco router

Router keeps configuration in RAM. All settings that we have made in this article will erase once the router reboot. To preserve this configuration after reboot we must have to save this. Following command will save running configuration in NVRAM.
cisco16

Erasing configuration in cisco router

We have done our practice now make it available for next round of practice. As we know that routers load configuration file from NVRAM in startup.

At the end of startup it takes configuration file from NVRAM and parse it RAM. We need to erase this configuration file from NVRAM to remove configuration. Following command will delete configuration file from NVRAM.
cisco17

Configuring VoIP: Basic level_Packet Tracer

Sumber: edsonvuma.wordpress.com/2013/06/10/configuring-voip-basic-level_packet-tracer/

On this article I will describe superficially about the basic concepts that you must have in order to have the…….basic info and complete this LAB successfully .🙂

So, Gents and Ladys…

Lest start describing what is VoIP: as the name says, VoIP is Voice over IP. Anything that allows you to communicate, I mean, to transmit your voice over the IP, or the Internet , is VoIP.

There are distinct vendors of VoIP,  however, on this tutorial, we will focus on Cisco, we will focus on the following product: Cisco Unified Call Manager Express (commonly known as CUCME)

There are Routers called ISR: Integrated Service Routers, which come with certain services and features inside it.

CUCME is one example of these features and services that are build-in the router (or are router-based).

There is a technology called PoE: Power Over Ethernet, which allows equipment to send data and power at the same time to certain devices that are PoE compatible.

So, knowing these few things, lets get to work.

Lets mount the following topology:
confpackettracer1

Pay attention that on Packet Tracer the PoE technology isn’t implemented yet.🙂

This is why, to power on the IP Phones we will connect a power adapter to it.

As the Switch is not PoE.

See how to connect the power adapter to the IP Phone on the picture below:

confpackettracer2

So the first thing to be done is to configure the IP address of the router:

Router>enable
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)#no shutdown

A DHCP server is used to assign IP addresses to the IP Phones.

A TFTP server is used to allow the phones to get the firmware and certain configurations files from the router, this is done by the option 150 of the DHCP.

1. Router(config)#ip dhcp pool VOICE
2. Router(dhcp-config)#network 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0
3. Router(dhcp-config)#default-router 192.168.1.1
4. Router(dhcp-config)#option 150 ip 192.168.1.1

CLI description:

1. Giving a name to the DHCP pool, in this case, this pool is for the phones only,

2. The network that is covered by the DHCP

3. The default router for this IP distribution

4. Configuration of the TFTP

Next step to do is to configure the Call Manager Express itself on the router,

1. Router(config)#telephony-service
2. Router(config-telephony)#max-dn 5
3. Router(config-telephony)#max-ephones 5
4. Router(config-telephony)#ip source-address 192.168.1.1 port 2000
5. Router(config-telephony)#auto assign 1 to 5

CLI descrition:

1. Enters to the telephony services

2. max number of phone lines

3. max number of telephones

4. The IP of the router where the telephones will be registered and the source address where is running the DHCP and TFTP services, which will be the router itself. And the port used for the phones, the default one is 2000 (for SCCP phones)

5. is to automatically register the phones, on this case is from phone 1 to 5 (you can register the IP Phones yourself, next time I will show how to do it)

Next step is to configure the Switch, on this case, there is not too much to do, just configure a VLAN for voice traffic. We must add this VLAN to separate the data traffic from the Voice traffic. Data will be sent to the computers and voice traffic will be sent to the IP Phones.

As we configured 5 max IP Phones, so we will configure 5 interfaces of the switch to the Voice VLAN.

As you can see on the image below,

confpackettracer3

P.S.: The first interface of the switch on my scenario, is connected to my router, so we will exclude it on this VLAN configuration.

Switch(config)#int range fastEthernet 0/2-6
Switch(config-if-range)#switchport mode access
Switch(config-if-range)#switchport voice vlan 1
Switch(config-if-range)#

Despite being on the same VLAN  (data and voice), virtually the traffic will be separated. (If you wish, you can create another VLAN for the VOICE traffic)

Now is time to give numbers to the lines that will be used on the IP Phones:

P.S: We have configured 5 max IP Phones, so we will configure 5 max numbers for the lines.

Router(config)#ephone-dn 1
Router(config-ephone-dn)#number 10

Router(config)#ephone-dn 2
Router(config-ephone-dn)#number 20

Router(config)#ephone-dn 3
Router(config-ephone-dn)#number 30

Router(config)#ephone-dn 4
Router(config-ephone-dn)#number 40

Router(config)#ephone-dn 5
Router(config-ephone-dn)#number 50

Its almost there, the only confirmation we need is that the IP Phones were successfully registered on the CUCME (This process can take a while).
Hover the mouse on the IP Phone to see if it successfully received the IP address and the phone number (If not, wait a little bit more. P.S.: This process can take a while).

confpackettracer4

Once you have the confirmation, you can add the remaining 4 IP Phones on the switch, remembering that these IP Phones must be added on the same interfaces were have configured the Voice VLAN.🙂

confpackettracer5

Make a call to test the configurations

1. Look at the pictures below:

confpackettracer6

2. Dial from one phone to another, on this case we will dial from IP Phone number 10 to IP Phone number 20 (to dial, just mark the number and click on the earphone)

confpackettracer7

To pick up the call on the other phone, just click on the earphone too and…VOILA

Hope you finish sucessfully the configurations.

Any doubts, you can post here your comments so that anyone can see it or you can send me an email: edsonvuma1@gmail.com

See you next time….🙂

Perbedaan Antara Hub, Switch, Dan Router

Sumber: jaringan.link/2014/08/perbedaan-antara-hub-switch-dan-router.html

Pada zaman teknologi serba maju ini, kitapun dituntut untuk mengenal lebih banyak teknologi yang digunakan saat ini. Salah satu teknologi tersebut adalah jaringan. Dalam ilmu jaringan, terdapat beberapa alat yang digunakan untuk keperluan tersebut, alat tersebut antara lain adalah hub, switch, dan router. Mungkin bagi beberapa maniak jaringan sudah tidak asing lagi mendengar dan mengetahui 3 barang di atas, namun untuk beberapa orang awam mungkin membutuhkan informasi maupun ilmu tentang alat tersebut. Beruntung karena saya di sini akan membahas satu per satu pengertian dan perbedaan dari ketiga barang tersebut. Nah, langsung saja tengok pada tulisan di bawah ini, cekidot.

Hub

Hub? Apakah itu semacam hubungan? Haha, mungkin bila ini artikel tentang cinta, hal itu bisa diterima, tetapi ini adalah artikel tentang jaringan, jadi pengertian tersebut salah. Hub adalah alat penghubung antar-user, tetapi paket yang dihubungkan (misalnya email, data, grafik) tersebut dikirimkan melalui semua port yang terdapat pada hub. Nah, ada yang masih bingung dengan pengertian di atas? Untuk lebih mudahnya, saya akan memberikan gambaran mudahnya. Misalnya sebuah hub memiliki 8 port, pada user yang menggunakan port 1 dengan IP: 192.168.1.1 mengirimkan sebuah data yang menuju ke port 4 dengan IP: 192.168.1.4.

hubswitchrouter1

Nah, dalam kasus seperti ini, data tersebut tidak langsung menuju ke port 4, tetapi dia akan menuju ke semua port, dari port 2 sampai dengan 8 untuk mencari alamat IP: 192.168.1.4. Apakah hal ini efisien? Tentu tidak. Karena tujuan kita hanya 1 port, mengapa semua port harus kita kirimkan data yang sama? Itu seperti kita mengirim surat untuk 1 alamat, tetapi ke 7 alamat tersebut juga mendapatkan surat yang sama. Karena kegunaannya hub sering digunakan untuk sebuah institut yang memiliki banyak komputer / device untuk dihubungkan menjadi 1 jalur. Sebenarnya hub itu dibagi menjadi 2, yaitu hub Pasif dan hub Aktif, tetapi saya tidak akan membahas hal tersebut di sini. Nah, sudah mengetahui kan pengertian hub? Untuk lebih jelasnya silakan lihat gambar berikut ini!

hubswitchrouter2

Switch

Sekarang kita akan membahas alat yang lebih cerdas daripada hub. Apakah itu? Yup, switch. Switch di sini bukanlah sebuah tombol ya, tetapi switch di sini adalah alat penghubung antar-user, tetapi paket yang dihubungkan (misalnya email, data, grafik) tersebut dikirimkan melalui port yang dituju. Dari sini kita sudah mengetahui perbedaan yang mencolok antara switch dan hub. Supaya anda lebih mudah memahaminya lagi, saya akan memberikan gambaran untuk anda. Misalnya ada sebuah user yang menggunakan port 3 dengan IP: 192.168.1.3 akan mengirimkan data menuju ke port 5 dengan IP: 192.168.1.5. Data yang dikirim tersebut akan langsung menuju ke port 5, tidak melalui semua port seperti hub. Sama seperti hub, switch biasa digunakan untuk sebuah institut yang memiliki banyak komputer / device untuk dihubungkan menjadi 1 jalur. Dan untuk switch, sebenarnya terdapat 2 macam switch yang berbeda, yaitu switch Manageable dan switch Non-Manageable. Untuk perbedaannya silakan anda bertanya pada Mbah Google yang lebih pintar.

hubswitchrouter3 hubswitchrouter4

Router

Router, berasal dari kata route yang artinya rute atau jalan. Lalu, apa hubungannya jalan dengan alat ini? Sebenarnya hubungannya terdapat pada fungsinya. Secara sederhana, pengertian router adalah alat yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan 2 user atau lebih dengan IP address yang memiliki network ID yang berbeda, bukan hanya host ID yang berbeda. Untuk lebih jelasnya, coba perhatikan contoh berikut ini. IP: 192.168.1.1 memiliki network ID: 192.168.1 dan host ID: 1, IP: 192.167.1.1 memiliki network ID: 192.167.1 dan host ID: 1, nah coba tebak, IP: 192.170.1.3 memiliki network ID dan host ID berapa? Yup, memiliki network ID: 192.170.1 dan host ID: 3. Mungkin untuk penjelasan tentang network ID dan host ID bisa mencari di Google atau artikel lainnya, karena bila saya menjelaskan semua, akan menghabiskan halaman dari artikel yang saya buat.

hubswitchrouter5

Lalu bila IP address yang memiliki network ID yang sama, apakah tidak bisa? Tentu saja bisa! Coba bandingkan dengan hub maupun switch bila ingin berkomunikasi dengan 2 IP dengan network ID yang berbeda, misalnya 192.168.1.1 dengan 192.167.1.1, maka tidak akan bisa. Nah di sinilah fungsi router digunakan, router akan meneruskan data yang dikirim meskipun dengan network ID yang berbeda. Router biasa digunakan untuk menghubungkan 2 institut, misalnya gedung perkantoran dengan gedung sekolah, karena jelas masing2 institut memiliki network ID yang berbeda. Banyak sekali macam-macam router yang ada di dunia ini, tetapi yang sering saya gunakan adalah router MikroTik. Karena router tersebut sangat nyaman digunakan dan sangat User-Friendly.

hubswitchrouter6 Penulis: Muhamad Helmi
Referensi: infoteknologi.com/network/perbedaan-hub-dan-switch/
Sumber Gambar:
hub = teqlog.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/8_Port_Mini_Ethernet_hub.jpg
switch = dlink.com/-/media/Images/Products/DGS/1008P/DGS1008PB1Image%20LSide.png
router = cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Linksys_WRT1900AC_router_Front_Final1-640×353.jpg